Friday, December 14, 2012

C++範例程式 : 四則運算計算機


這隻程式主要測試程式設計師對以鍊結串列形成的堆疊進行操作的能力(事實上檢查輸入字串的部份有佇列的概念-先進先出 FIFO). 另外也對四則運算的基本原理進行了解, 並使用堆疊完成正確的計算. 實際上寫這隻程式之前應該有另一個版本的程式 : 先將計算式轉成後序式, 再使用後序式進行計算(只需要一個堆疊即可). 不過我們並不需要輸出後序式, 所以搭配兩個堆疊直接算出結果.

程式困難的地方在:
1. 檢查輸入的計算式產生已完成檢查的鍊結串列 : 哪些運算符號(運算子 operator)是可以使用的? 運算元(數字 operand)的規格?

2. 操作運算元及運算子的堆疊 : 根據不同符號及優先權決定是否放入堆疊或是先計算再放入堆疊. 最後還要記得清空堆疊, 再輸出結果.

程式碼如下:




/*-
 * Calculator program
 * 
 * 2012/11/28 Cheng-Yi Chen
 *
 */

#include <iostream>
#include <cctype>
#include <cmath> 
using namespace std;

// Define node structure
typedef struct _node * nodep;
typedef struct _node{
 short type;        // 0: operator, use op; 1: operand, use value
 union{
  char op;          // For operator
  double value;   // For operand
 };
 nodep next;        // Point to next node
} node;

// Valid operator
// # : for internal usage
#define checkOP 7
const char validOP[]={'(','^','*','/','+','-',')','#'};

// Left Operator : ISP(In-Stack Priority)
// (, ^, *, /, +, -, ), #
// 0  4  4  4  2  2  6 -1
const int ISP[]={0,4,4,4,2,2,6,-1};

// Right Operator : ICP(In-Coming Priority)
// (, ^, *, /, +, -, ), #
// 6  5  3  3  1  1  0 -1
const int ICP[]={6,5,3,3,1,1,0,-1};

// Valid cal. string linked list
nodep calLListHead = NULL;
nodep calLListTail = NULL;

// Stack for operators and operands
nodep oprStack = NULL;
nodep opdStack = NULL;

// Basic functions
int isValidOP(char);        // For checking operator
int isValidChar(char);      // For checking character
int getValidOP(char);       // To get operator id

// For check input string and build cal. string linked list
void addNodeTocalLList(nodep);      // Add free node to cal. string linked list.
                                    // Been used in next two functions.
void addOperand(double);            // Add operand node
void addOperator(char);             // Add operator node
int checkCalStr(string);            // For check input string

// For stack operation
void push();                        // Read head node of cal. string linked list
                                    // then push free node to oprStack or opdStack
void push(nodep);                   // Push free node(result) to oprStack or opdStack
nodep pop(int);                     // Popup top node of oprStack or opdStack
nodep mathCal(nodep,nodep,nodep);   // Mathematics calculation
double calculate();                 // Calculate input string

void showCalLList();                // Show cal. string linked list
void cleanLList();                  // Clean cal. string linked list

// Purpose : Main program
// Params  : void
// Return  : 0 : normal execution
int main()
{
 // Cal. string from user input
 string calStr;
 // Continue or not
 char choice;

 cout << "四則運算計算機" << endl;
 cout << "運算元   : 支援 正整數及小數點" << endl;
 cout << "運算符號 : 支援 +(加) -(減) *(乘) /(除) ^(次方)" << endl;
 cout << "另支援括號. 例 : (2.2+3.3)*5.5" << endl;
 cout << "### 請勿使用空白鍵分隔運算元與運算符號. ###" << endl;

 do{
  cout << "\n請輸入計算式 ";
  cin >> calStr;

  if(!checkCalStr(calStr))
  {
   cout << "計算式無法正常計算" << endl;
   continue;
  }

        // Display input string and result
  showCalLList();
  cout << "= " << calculate() << endl;

  // Cleanup cal. linked list
  cleanLList();

  cout << "是否繼續計算? (任意鍵繼續, N/n 離開)";
  cin >> choice;
 }while(choice != 'N' && choice != 'n');

    //system("pause");
 return 0;
}

// Purpose : For checking oprator
// Params  : symbol of operator
// Return  : 0 : invalid; 1: valid
int isValidOP(char c)
{
 int i;
 for(i = 0; i < checkOP; i++)
 {
  if(c == validOP[i])
   return 1;
 }

 return 0;
}

// Purpose : For checking character
// Params  : Character from input string
// Return  : 0 : invalid; 1: valid
int isValidChar(char c)
{
 if(isdigit(c) || isValidOP(c) || c == '.')
  return 1;
 else
  return 0;
}

// Purpose : To get operator id by search in validOP array
// Params  : Symbol of operator
// Return  : Id of operator
int getValidOP(char c)
{
 int i;

 for(int i=0; i < checkOP; i++)
 {
  if(validOP[i] == c)
   return i;
 }

 return -1;
}

// Purpose : Add free node to cal. string linked list. 
//           Been used in next two functions.
// Params  : New operand or operator node
// Return  : Void
void addNodeTocalLList(nodep node)
{
 if(calLListTail)
 {
        // Has at least one node
  calLListTail->next = node;
  calLListTail = node;
 }
 else
 {
        // The cal. string linked list is empty
  calLListHead = node;
  calLListTail = node;
 }
}

// Purpose : Add operand node
// Params  : The value of operand
// Return  : Void
void addOperand(double value)
{
    // Generate new operand node
 nodep newNode = new node;
 newNode->type = 1;
 newNode->value = value;
 newNode->next = NULL;

    // Add new node to cal. string linked list
 addNodeTocalLList(newNode);
}

// Purpose : Add operator node
// Params  : The symbol of operator
// Return  : Void
void addOperator(char op)
{
    // Generate new operator node
 nodep newNode = new node;
 newNode->type = 0;
 newNode->op = op;
 newNode->next = NULL;

    // Add new node to cal. string linked list
 addNodeTocalLList(newNode);
}

// Purpose : Check the cal. string
// Params  : Input string
// Return  : 0 : failed; 1: success
int checkCalStr(string calStr)
{
    // Loop counter, length of cal. string, parentheses counter, value of digit char, base value for decimal
 int i, calStrLen, parenCount, charValue, divBase;
    // True  : after '.', below the decimal point
    // False : before '.', above the decimal point
 bool isDecimal;
    // Temporary value for digit
 double tmp;

 // 0. Get string length
 calStrLen = calStr.length();

 // 1. Check chacter
 for(i = 0; i < calStrLen; i++)
 {
        // If find invalid char, stop processing
  if(!isValidChar(calStr[i]))
  {
   cout << "錯誤 : 發現無法辨識的字元 " << calStr[i] << ", 無法進行後續的計算." << endl;
   return 0;
  }
 }

 // 2. Check parentheses : if the pairs of parentheses is correct
    //                        the final parenCount will be zero.
 parenCount = 0;
 for(i = 0; i < calStrLen; i++)
 {
  if(calStr[i] == '(')
   parenCount++;
  else if(calStr[i] == ')')
   parenCount--;
 }
 if(parenCount)
 {
  cout << "錯誤 : 括號無法正確配對, ";
  if(parenCount>0)
   cout << "少 " << parenCount << " 個右括號." << endl;
  else
   cout << "少 " << 0-parenCount << " 個左括號." << endl;
  return 0;
 }

 // 2. Generate Link List
    // 2.1. initialize variables
 tmp = 0;
 isDecimal = false;
 divBase=10;

    // 2.2. generate operator and operand node and add to tail of cal. string linked list
 for(i = 0; i < calStrLen; i++)
 {
        // Only for converting single digit char to integer
  charValue = 0;

        // Generate node
  if(isValidOP(calStr[i]))
  {
   // Generate previous operand node
   if(i > 0 && isdigit(calStr[i-1]))
   {
    addOperand(tmp);
   }

   // Generate operator node
   addOperator(calStr[i]);

            // Prepare for reading next operand or operator
   tmp = 0;
   isDecimal = false;
   divBase=10;
  }
  else if(calStr[i] == '.')
  {
            // Below the decimal point and only appear between two digit char
   isDecimal = true;
  }
  else
  {
            // Process digit char.
   charValue = (int)calStr[i] - 48;
   if(isDecimal)
   {
                // Below the decimal point
    tmp+=((double)charValue/divBase);
    divBase*=10;
   }
   else
   {
                // Above the decimal point
    tmp*=10;
    tmp+=(double)charValue;
   }
  }
 }

    // Generate last operand if available
 if(isdigit(calStr[calStrLen-1]))
  addOperand(tmp);

 return 1;
}

// Purpose : Read head node of cal. string linked list
//           then push free node to oprStack or opdStack
// Params  : Node pointer of free node
// Return  : Void
void push()
{
    // Get head node of cal. string linked list
 nodep cur = calLListHead;
 calLListHead = calLListHead->next;
 cur->next = NULL;

    // Push free node to oprStack or opdStack
 if(cur->type)
 {
  // Operand
  cur->next = opdStack;
  opdStack = cur;
 }
 else
 {
  // Operator
  cur->next = oprStack;
  oprStack = cur;
 }
}

// Purpose : Push free node(result) to oprStack or opdStack
// Params  : Node pointer of free node
// Return  : Void
void push(nodep node)
{
 if(node->type)
 {
  // Operand
        // Let the next pointer ponit to top node of opdStack
  node->next = opdStack;
        // Move top node pointer ponit to new node
  opdStack = node;
 }
 else
 {
  // Operator
        // Let the next pointer ponit to top node of oprStack
  node->next = oprStack;
        // Move top node pointer ponit to new node
  oprStack = node;
 }
}

// Purpose : Popup top node of oprStack or opdStack
// Params  : 0 : operator; 1 : operand
// Return  : Top node pointer of oprStack or opdStack
nodep pop(int type)
{
    // Top node pointer of oprStack or opdStack
 nodep stackTop;

    // 0 : operator; 1 : operand
 if(type)
 {
  // Operand
        // opdStack is empty
  if(!opdStack)
   return NULL;

        // Point to top node of opdStack
  stackTop = opdStack;
        // Move the top pointer of opdStack to next node
  if(stackTop->next)
   opdStack = opdStack->next;
  else
   opdStack = NULL;
 }
 else
 {
  // Operator
        // oprStack is empty
  if(!oprStack)
   return NULL;

        // Point to top node of oprStack
  stackTop = oprStack;
        // Move the top pointer of oprStack to next node
  if(stackTop->next)
   oprStack = oprStack->next;
  else
   oprStack = NULL;
 }

    // Clean the next pointer of free node
 stackTop->next = NULL;
 return stackTop;
}

// Purpose : Do +, -, *, / and ^
// Params  : Pointer for left operaand, operator and right operand
// Return  : Result node with operand type
nodep mathCal(nodep left, nodep opr, nodep right)
{
    // Alocate new operand node for result
 nodep result = new node;
 result->type = 1;
 result->value = 0.0;
 result->next = NULL;

    // Mathematic switch
 switch(opr->op)
 {
  case '+': result->value = left->value + right->value; break;
  case '-': result->value = left->value - right->value; break;
  case '*': result->value = left->value * right->value; break;
  case '/': result->value = left->value / right->value; break;
  case '^': result->value = pow(left->value , right->value); break;
  default: break;
 }

 return result;
}

// Purpose : Calculate the mathematic expression
// Params  : Void
// Return  : Result value
double calculate()
{
 // Define node pointer for left operand, right operand, operator and result
 nodep left, right, opr, result;

    // Read the cal. string linked list one by one
 while(calLListHead)
 {
  // Do cal. work by its type
  if(calLListHead->type)
  {
   // Operand
   push();
  }
  else
  {
   // Operator ( ) + - * / ^
   if(calLListHead->op == '(')
   {
    // Operator : (
    push();
   }
   else if(calLListHead->op == ')')
   {
    // Operator : )
    //remove ')' node
    opr = calLListHead;
    calLListHead = calLListHead->next;
    opr->next=NULL;
    delete opr;

    // Popup oprStack until '('
    while(oprStack && oprStack->op != '(')
    {
     // Get right, left operand node from opdStack
     right = pop(1);
     left  = pop(1);
     // Get operator from oprStack
     opr   = pop(0);
     // Execute calculation
     result = mathCal(left,opr,right);
     // Push result node to operand stack
     push(result);
    }
    // Remove '('
    pop(0);
   }
   else
   {
    // Operator : + - * / ^
    if(oprStack)
    {
                    // Compare left operator(from oprStack) and 
                    // right operator(from cal. string linked list)
     if(ISP[getValidOP(oprStack->op)] > ICP[getValidOP(calLListHead->op)])
     {
                        // High priority operator(left operator)
      // Get right, left operand node from opdStack
      right = pop(1);
      left  = pop(1);
      // Get left operator from oprStack
      opr   = pop(0);
      // Execute calculation
      result = mathCal(left,opr,right);
      // Push result node to operand stack
      push(result);
      // Push right operator to operator stack
      push();
     }
     else if(ISP[getValidOP(oprStack->op)] < ICP[getValidOP(calLListHead->op)])
     {
                        // High priority operator(right operator)
      // Push right operator to operator stack
      push();
     }
     else
     {
      // Must not have this situation
     }
    }
    else
    {
     // If operator stack is empty, push the operator to oprStack
     push();
    }
   }
  }

 }

 // To do the last calculation work and popup oprStack untill empty
 while(oprStack)
 {
  // Get right, left operand node from opdStack
  right = pop(1);
  left  = pop(1);
  // Get operator from oprStack
  opr   = pop(0);
  // Execute calculation
  result = mathCal(left,opr,right);
  // Push result node to operand stack
  push(result);
 }

 // Get final result and return its value
 result = pop(1);
 return result->value;
}

// Purpose : Display the cal. string linked list
// Params  : Void
// Return  : Void
void showCalLList()
{
 // Head pointer
 nodep cur = calLListHead;

 // Print cal. string linked list recusively
 while(cur)
 {
        // Display the content of node by its type
        // 0 : operator; 1 : operand
  if(cur->type)
   cout << cur->value << " ";
  else
   cout << cur->op << " ";
  cur = cur->next;
 }
}

// Purpose : Clean the unused linked list
//           Read the cal. string linked list and release unused memory space
// Params  : Void
// Return  : Void
void cleanLList()
{
 // Head pointer
 nodep cur = calLListHead;

 // Delete node from head to tail
 while(cur)
 {
        // Move head of linked list to next position
  calLListHead = calLListHead->next;
        // Remove the free node
  delete cur;
        // Point to head of linked list and do it again untill the linked list is empty
  cur= calLListHead;
 }
    // The linked list had been removed then change the tail pointer of linked list
 calLListTail = NULL;
}

2 comments:

劉韋伯 said...

一開始的 #include 後面沒東西嗎??

正義客 said...

查了一下當年的程式碼是以下三行

#include <iostream>
#include <cctype>
#include <cmath>